Uburyo Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yahinduye imyitozo y’Abasirikare ikabigisha kugabanya ubumuntu

Ku itariki nk’iyi mu mwaka wa 1939 - imyaka 80 irashize, Umudage Adolf Hitler yateye Pologne mu burengerazuba, hashize iminsi ibiri Ubufaransa n’Ubwongereza bishoza intambara ku Budage, intambara ya kabiri y’isi iba irambikanye.

Ubushakashatsi butavugwaho rumwe bwatangajwe nyuma yaho iyi ntambara irangiriye mu 1945, bwahinduye imyitozo ya gisirikare muri Amerika no ku isi.

Nyuma y’iyo ntambara ya kabiri y’isi, yahitanye abantu benshi mu mateka (abarenga miliyoni 70), igisirikare cy’Amerika cyageze ku mwanzuro utangaje: ntabwo bishe bihagije; cyangwa se, bivuzwe neza, abasirikare benshi b’Amerika ntabwo bakoze ubwicanyi.

Mu itsinda ry’abasirikare 10, ikigereranyo kiri munsi ya batatu ngo ntibigeze barasa imbunda zabo. Na rimwe. Kabone n’ubwo babaga basumbirijwe n’umwanzi n’ubuzima bwabo buri mu kaga.

Ibi ni ibyo umwe mu nzobere n’umunyamateka wo mu basirikare b’Amerika Brigadier General Samuel Lyman Atwood Marshall uzwi cyane ku kazi ka ’Slam’ yagezeho mu bushakashatsi butavugwaho rumwe yanditsemo igitabo yise "Men Against Fire".

Ibyo yanditse byaranenzwe cyane - bamwe bamushinja kubeshya - nyamara ibyo yanditse byazanye impinduramatwa mu myitozo y’ingabo z’Amerika.


Abasirikare ba Amerika basatira ingabo z’u Buyapani mu Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi Abasirikare b’Amerika baba baratinyaga kurasa?

Ikigero cyo kwica

Uwo musirikare yaranditse ati: "Uyoboye abarwanira ku butaka yamenya ko mu gihe ahanganye n’umwanzi abatarenze 1/4 cy’abasirikare be ari bo barasa umwambi nyawo".

We avuga ko 75% batarasaga ndetse batashoboye guhangana n’umwanzi n’ibikorwa bye. Akavuga ko aba bose babaga bari mu kaga ariko nyamara ntibarwane.

Marshall nyuma iyi mibare yaje kuyizamura ayigeza ahubwo kuri 85%.

Kuki ingabo z’Amerika zari ku rugamba mu Burayi no mu bice by’inyanja ya Pasifika zitarasaga cyane nubwo zabaga zugarijwe?

Marshall avuga ko hari impamvu ebyiri - Ko abenshi babaga bashaka ko akazi kose gakorwa na bamwe, kandi ko amajyambere yatumye Abanyamerika "batinya gusagarira abantu" ibyo bigatuma abasirikare benshi baririndaga kurasa.

Yanditse ko abasirikare bari bakeneye gutozwa kurasa mu ntambara, badatekereza cyangwa ngo bihe umwanya wo kuganzwa n’amarangamutima.


Abasirikare ba Amerika ku karasisi mu myaka ya 1940. Ubushakashatsi bwa Marshall bwahinduye uburyo batozwa ibya gisirikare

Umwanzuro we wari uko Umunyamerika ari "umunyamahoro", watumye hashyirwaho tekiniki nshya zitoza abasirikare kwica no kubavanamo ubumuntu ku rugamba.

Umunyamateka w’umwongereza Dr John Keegan avuga ko intego y’ukuri y’inyandiko za Marshall zitari ubushakashatsi…ahubwo yari agamije kwereka Amerika ko irwana intambara zayo mu buryo bwa ntabwo.

Agita ati: "Ingingo ze zari zikomeye, yari afite ubuhanga budasanzwe nk’umunyamateka mu kumvikanisha no gutuma abantu bemera ibitekerezo bye bakanabishyira mu ngiro".

Marshall na we ubwe yavuze ko ubushakashatsi bwe bwatumye "ikigero cyo kurashisha imbunda" kizamuka.


Abasirikare bagendana ku butaka mu gihe kajugujugu zibanyura hejuru. Ubushakashatsi buvuga ko abasirikare ba Amerika barwanye intambara yo muri Vietnam bashoboraga kurasa cyane kurusha mu Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi

Akazi ke yagakomereje mu ntambara ya Koreya aho yatangaje ko ikigero cyo kurasa ku ngabo z’Amerika cyazamutse kikagera kuri 55%.

Muri Vietnam, ikigero cyo kurasa cyarazamutse kurushaho - ubushakashatsi bumwe bugaragaza ko 90% by’abasirikare b’Amerika barasaga imbunda zabo ku bantu.

Inyigisho

Marshall yatangije ikiswe "kubaza abarangije urugamba".

Yajyaga ku rugamba akabaza abavuye ku murongo w’imbere w’intambara - avuga ko yabajije abarenga 400 bakiva ku rugamba - akanaganira n’abandi bagize uruhare mu ntambara.

Aba bakamubwira ibyo bakoze mu mirwano ariko batamubwiye imyirondoro yabo maze akabyandika. Abamunenga ariko bavuga ko nta kintu yandikagamo na kimwe kigeze kigaragara.


Bamwe mu basirikare ba Amerika bahakana ibyo Marshall yavuze mu biganiro avuga ko bagiranye. Abagaragara hano ni abo kunganira bagenzi babo basumbirijwe hafi y’i Colleville-sur-Mer mu Bufaransa, ku itariki ya 18 y’ukwa Gatandatu mu 1944

Ahereye kuri ibi, we yavuze ko abasirikare benshi b’Amerika bagiraga ubwoba bwo kurasa ku banzi barwanaga nk’Abadage n’Abayapani mu ntambara zabanje.

Akavuga ko batari bafite ubwoba bwo gupfa, ahubwo ubwo kwica. Asubiye i Washington, ba jenerali bumvise amasomo ye.

Impinduka mu myigishirize

Imyitozo ya kera y’ingabo z’Amerika harimo gupima no kurasa ikintu kiri kure. Ibi byatumaga abasirikare ngo batamenya uko intambara imeze nyabyo kandi batishora mu kwica bya nyabyo.


Umwarimu wa gisirikare wa Amerika arereka abasirikare aho bahamije mu myitozo yo gupima, aha ni ahitwa Aberdeen muri Leta ya Maryland, ku itariki ya 8 y’ukwa Kane mu mwaka wa 1941

Nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi, izi ngabo zatangiye gutozwa hakoreshejwe ibintu bimeze nk’abantu ngo babihamye.

Ibi bigamije kuvanamo abasirikare ubwoba bwo kurasa, abasirikare batozwa kurasa bene ibi bintu biri henshi kandi hafi na kure yabo vuba vuba.

Byageze mu gihe cy’intambara ya Vietnam cya kigero cyo kurasa ku bari ku rugamba cyarazamutse bidasanzwe.

Bakomeje no gutozwa kurwanisha icyuma kabone nubwo kitaba kiri bukoreshwe ku rugamba.


Umusirikare wa Amerika atera icyuma cyo ku mbunda (’bayonet’) aho yabwiwe guhamya. Imyitozo nk’iyi iracyatangwa na n’ubu mu gisirikare cy’Amerika

Majoro FDG William wo mu ishami ryo gutoza ingabo z’Amerika yaranditse ati: "Mu by’ukuri ibitekerezo bya Marshall byahinduye byinshi".

Impaka

Ntabwo abo mu ngabo bose bashimishijwe n’akazi Marshall yakoze, bamwe banenze bikomeye ingaruka zabyo n’intego ze, ndetse n’uburyo yakozemo ubushakashatsi bwe ntaho yandika.

Bamwe mu basirikare yavugaga ko yabajije bavuze ko atigeze ababaza niba bararashe, Marshall na we ntabwo yigeze agaragaza mu mibare uko yageze ku majanisha yavugaga.

Robert Engen, umwanditsi w’Umunya-Canada, avuga ko hari impamvu nyinshi zo guhamya ko amajanisha yatangaga yabaga ari imibare mihimbano yavanaga mu ntekerezo z’uko we yumva urugamba.


Byinshi mu bigize ubushakashatsi bwa Marshall ku Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi bishidikanywaho

Engen avuga ko Marshall mu nyandiko ze nyinshi ku mateka harimo kubeshya.

Avuga nk’aho Marshall yavuze ko mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yari we musirikare ukiri muto mu ngabo zose z’Amerika zagiye ku rugamba nyamara ngo atari byo.

Mu 1919 ni bwo yagizwe umusirikare, icyo gihe nabwo ngo yagiye i Burayi agiye mu butumwa bwo guherekeza arinze abasirikare bari batashye bavuye ku rugamba intambara ya mbere y’isi irangiye.


Abasirikare batatu ba Amerika barwanisha imbunda yo mu bwoko bwa French ’37’ mu Ntambara ya Mbere y’Isi. Hibazwa ibibazo byinshi ku ruhare Marshall yaba yaragize muri iyi ntambara

Ibyo Marshall yagiye yandika kandi byababaje bamwe muri ba sekombata (’anciens combattants’; abarwanye kera) bavuga ko bibatera icyasha.

Imibare ye ya 15% kugeza kuri 20% na n’ubu hari abantu banyuranye bazwi cyane bakiyigenderaho ku isi, nubwo bwose hashize igihe igiweho impaka ku kuri kwayo.

Ikitagibwaho impaka ni umurage wayo, yatumye abasirikare ahanyuranye ku isi bahinduka kurushaho imashini zitazuyaza zo kwica.


Abasirikare b’aba ’Marines’ ba Amerika bashinga ibendera ahitwa Iwo Jima mu Buyapani, muri rumwe mu ngamba zabaye isibaniro zo mu Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi

@Umubavu.com





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