Menya byinshi ku gihembo kitiriwe Nobel. Ese gihabwa muntu ki?

Ubusanzwe Isi, yagize benshi bayigiriye umumaro. Hari bimwe turya, tunywa, turyamaho, twicaraho, dukoresha dukonjesha ibyo turya, n’ibindi. Ibi, byavumbuwe na bamwe mu babayeho mu isi,, abandi baza babunganira mbese bashyiramo udushya, ariko atari bo babitangije. Aba, bahabwa igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel.

Ese, bagihabwa kubera iki? Utakibonye se kandi warakoze byiza byagutwara iki? Ni bande mu bo twamenye mu mateka y’uyu mubumbe babihawe? Kirimo ibyiciro bingahe? Byose reka tubikuvire imuzingo.

Ku itariki ya 27 Ugushyingo mu mwaka wa 1895, ni bwo umunyabutabire w’umunyaswede Alpfred Nobel yashyizeho igikombe cyamwitiriwe.

Mbere y’uko yitaba Imana, yatanze ikifuzo cye cya nyuma, ko umuntu wese uzajya akora byiza bifitiye abandi akamaro kurusha abandi,, azajya ahabwa igihembo cyikamwitirirwa kuko nawe mu butabire yavumbuye byinshi benshi batakwigezaho.

Aha, yatangaje ko miliyoni 31.5 z’amakorna, ubwoko bw’ifaranga rikoreshwa muri swede. mu madorari ya amerika, ni million 3,282,300. Aya, buri mwaka agomba kugira uwo ahabwa byanga bikunze.

Igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel cyatanzwe bwa mbere mu 1901. Igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel muri uwo mwaka cyahawe babiri muri iyi si nzima. Harimo umufaransa Frédéric Passy n’umusuwisi Jean Henry Dunant.

Birashoboka ko yibanze kuri Norveje nk’igihugu cy’amahoro kurusha swede. bwa nyuma na nyuma, yaje kwemezwa n’inyandiko z’umunyanorveje Bonjern Bornson. Uyu, yari azwiho cyane kuba uwaharaniye amahoro, akaba yari n’umwanditsi.

Aha byari mu 1890. Hagati y’1901 na 2019, igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel mu bukungu cyatanzwe inshuro 597 gihawe abantu bagera kuri hamwe n’imiryango itandukanye. wakongeraho n’abandi bagiye bagihabwa inshuro irenze imwe,, bakangana n’abantu ku giti cyabo 919 , ndetse n’imiryango 24.

Muri uyu mwaka wa 2019, abantu bahawe iki gihembo hakaba harimo n’umunyafurika.
James Peebles wagihawe kubera ubuvumbuzi yakoze ku iterambere ry’isi rigaraga. byitwa physical cosmology. abavumbuye uko isi yikaraga, na bo ntibaretse guhabwa iki gihembo. Aba ni Michel Mayor na Didier Queloz

Mu butabire hahembwe John Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham na Akira Yoshino,, ku bwo kuba barafatanyije kuvumbura ubwoko bwa batiri dukoresha mu modoka zacu.

Mu buvuzi hakaba harahembwe William Kaelin Junior, Sir Peter Ratcliffe na Gregg Semenza,, kubera ubuvumbuzi bakoze ku turemangingo tugufasha gukusanya umwuka wa Oxygene. Mu buvanganzo Peter Handke niwe wahembwe Noble Prize muri uyu mwaka wa 2019.

Naho igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe uyu mugabo, kikaba cyarahawe Abiy Ahmed Ali ku bw’imbaraga yakoresheje mu kugera ku mahoro ndetse n’o gufatanya n’mahanga, imyanzuro yafashe we ubwe mu gukemura amakimbirane ashingiye ku mupaka uhuza Ethiopia na Eritrea.

Ikiciro gisigaye kikaba ari ubukungu. Aho Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo na Michael Kremer bari bavumbuye uburyo bushya bwo kurwanya ubukene ku isi yose.

Minisitiri w’intebe wa Ethiopia ni we munyaruka navugaga haruguru. Icyo yahembewe igihembo cy’amahoro kirtiriwe nobel na cyo twakibonye.

Iki gihembo cy’uyu mwaka kikaba cyari gitanze ku nshuro y’100 Gusa, cyo ntigihabwa ubonetse wese. Aband bagitsindiye harimo uwahoze ari umukuru w’igihugu cya eta zuzne ubumwe za merika Barack Obama, wagitsindiye muri 2009.

Undi wahawe iki gihembo, akaba ari undi wahoze ari umukur w’igihugu cya leta zuzne ubumwe za amerika ari we Jimmy Carter wagihawe mu 2002. Koffi anan na mutagatifu Teresa of Calcutta.

Gusa we yagihawe mbere cyane ahagana mu 1979. Imibare igaragaza ko uwatsindiye iki gihembo akiri muto ari uwari ufite imyaka 17 y’amavuko. Uyu ni Malala yusafuzayi umwana waharaniye uburezi kandi ari muto.

Uwahawe iki gihembo ashaje kurusha abandi ni John Goodenough yarafite imyaka 97. Ibihembo 53, byatsindiwe n’abagore. Abantu bagera kuri 6 bakaba baranze igihembo.

Byinshi kuri iki gihembo wasura imbuga nka nobelprize.org, onthisday.com na Enclopediabritanica.com





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