Ikinyabiziga gitangaje kiri mu rugendo kigana kuri Mars kiri ’hafi’ kugerayo

Ikinyabiziga kidasanzwe bise Perseverance cy’ikigo NASA cya leta ya Amerika gisigaje ibyumweru bitatu gusa ngo kigere ku mubumbe wa Mars.

Iyi robot muri iki gihe igeze ku ntera ya kilometero zigera kuri miliyoni 4.5 uvuye kuri uyu mubumbe utukura, iyo ntera iri kugabanuka vuba vuba.

Perseverance, nicyo kinyabiziga cya mbere kinini kandi gitangaje kigiye kugwa ku wundi mubumbe kivuye ku isi, NASA ivuga ko kizagwa hafi ya koma (equateur) ya Mars ahazwi nka Jezero.

Cyahagurutse ku isi mu cyogajuru cyagiye mu kwezi kwa karindwi 2020, biteganyijwe ko kizagera ku butaka bwa Mars mbere gato ya saa tatu z’ijoro ku isaha ngengamasaha ya GMT kuwa kane tariki 18 z’ukwezi gutaha kwa kabiri.

Mu kururuka, bizaba ngombwa ko Perseverance ihangana n’icyo abahanga bise "iminota irindwi y’akaga" - icyo ni igihe izamara kuva ku ntangiriro y’ikirere (atmosphere) cya Mars kugera ku butaka bwayo.

"Akaga" - ni ukuvuga ibihe bigoye byo kugabanya umuvuduko ukava kuri 20,000km/h ukagera ku muvuduko nk’uw’umuntu ugenda n’amaguru kugeza aho iki cyinyabiziga kizamanura amapine ngo agere hasi.

Allen Chen, enjeniyeri ukuriye gahunda yo kururutsa neza Perseverance yabwiye BBC ati: "Ubwo abahanga muri siyansi babonaga aho kizagwa, mu mikoki ya Jazero, babonye ari ahantu habaha ikizere kuko hagaragaza nk’ahahoze umugezi utemba, bityo bahabona nk’ahantu heza kizashakira ibimenyetso by’ubuzima bwaba bwarahabaye cyera. Ariko njye iyo ndebye Jazero, mbona akaga".

Arakomeza ati: "Aho hose hateye akaga. Hagati mu gace Perseverance izagwamo haca imanga ya 60 - 80m. Iyo urebye iburengarazuba, hari imikoki kiriya kinyabiziga kitabasha kuvamo turamutse tubashije kukihagusha.Iburasirazuba, hari ibitare binini cyane ni ahantu iki kinyabiziga kitakwishimira turamutse tukihagejeje."

Gusa ku bw’amahirwe, hari ubundi buhanga bwabanje kugeragezwa mu kururutsa ibimeze nka Perseverance kuri Mars. Harimo nka "Skycrane" ikindi kijya kumera gutya NASA yohereje kuri Mars mu myaka umunani ishize.

Ikoranabuhanga ryifashishijwe icyo gihe ubu ryaravuguruwe. Uburyo bwo kururutsa mu mitaka (parachute) kuva mu kirere (atmosphere) cya Mars bigendanye no kugabanya umuvuduko nabyo ubu byarushijeho kunozwa.

Perseverance nigera ku butaka bwa Mars, izatangira akazi ko gusuzuma ubutaka no munsi yabwo, ugereranyije n’amashusho asanzwe atangwa na za satellite.

Chen avuga ko Perseverance izajya ibasha kureba ikamenya aho iherereye kuri Mars, aho biri ngombwa ikaguruka kugira ngo igere ahantu heza yizeye, yakomereza ubushakashatsi.

Nubwo aho iki kinyabiziga aho kizagwa atari ho gusa kizakorera ubutumwa bwacyo, byitezweko ari ho kizibanda kuko abahanga bacyeka ko hahoze ikiyaga kinini bize Jazero.

Ken Farley, umuhanga uri gukora muri uyu mushinga wa Perseverance yabwiye BBC ati: "Amabuye ariho carbonate ariganje cyane ku isi, ariko ni imbonekarimwe kuri Mars, kandi ntituzi impamvu y’ibi.

"Hari agace kamwe aho mu mikoki Perseverance izagwamo bishoboka ko hari higanje cyane carbonate. Ni ibintu bidushishikaje cyane, kuko carbonate yo ku isi kenshi iva mu biva ku binyabuzima. Ni uburyo bwiza bwo gushakisha ibimenyetso by’ibinyabuzima."

Inzozi ni uko Perseverance yagera ku bisigazwa by’amabuye ya stromatolites ariho ibimenyetso by’ibinyabuzima.

Ayo ni amabuye amaze imyaka hafi miliyari enye mu gace ka Jazero iki kinyabiziga gishobora kuzabona.

Perseverance izabipakira bimwe mu byo izabona ari ingenzi cyane mu bushakashatsi, ibizane ku isi kugira ngo hakorwe icukumbura riruseho.

Farley avuga ko Perseverance yajyanye ibibazo bikomeye abahanga bibaza kandi ibyo izabona byose bizaba ari ibintu by’ingenzi mu gusubiza ibyo bibazo.

AMERICA YUNZE MURY’UBWONGEREZA ISABA U RDA GUHAGARIKA IBIKORWA BY’IYICARUBOZO, KUBURIRWA IRENGERO...





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