Menya bimwe mu bintu bidasanzwe byaranze Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi ku gihugu cy’u Bwongereza

Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi yose ni kimwe mu bintu bitazibagirana mu mateka y’isi bishingiye ku mubare w’abantu barenga Miliyoni 16 yahitanye ndetse n’ibyayitikiriyemo hagati y’umwaka wa 1914 na 1918.

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Urubuga rwa BBC Ishami ry’Amateka dukesha iyi nkuru rwakusanyije ibintu bidashobora kwibagirana byabayeho muri iyo ntambara, bamwe bita karundura, byibanda ku ruhande rwari ruhanganye n’Ingabo z’Abadage n’abari babashyigikiye.

Uguturika gukomeye kwabereye mu Bubiligi kunyeganyeza Umujyi wa Londres

Ubusanzwe ku Isi hamenyerewe ingabo zirwanira ku butaka, mu mazi no munsi yayo ndetse no mu kirere ariko bwari ubwa mbere habayeho ingabo zirwanira mu kuzimu [Tunnels].

Ibihugu byari mu itsinda rihanganye n’u Budage n’abambari babo aribo Autriche na Hongria, ryize amayeri yo kwica Abadage rinyuze ikuzimu, rikajya riturikiriza intambi munsi y’indaki zabo.

Kubera ko Ingabo z’u Budage zakundaga kurwanira mu myobo kandi nta buryo Abongereza n’Abafaransa bari kwishora mu ndake z’Abadage, hitabajwe abo bahanga mu byo guturitsa intambi, kenshi babaga ari abasivili maze bakajya bacukura inzira z’ikuzimu ahateganye n’indake z’Abadage, bahagera bagaturitsa intambi, Abadage n’indake zabo bikiyubika.

Ubuhanga bwo guhangana n’umwanzi mu ntambara z’ikuzimu, bwatumye u Bwongereza bwica abasirikare benshi b’u Budage.
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BBC ivuga ko mu rugamba rw’ahitwa Messines Redge mu Bubiligi haturikirijwe intambi zikomeye ku buryo urusaku rwazo rwakangaranyije u Burayi bwose ndetse David Lloyd George wari Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bwongereza akarwumva ari mu Biro bye Downing Street, i London.

Abongerezakazi ngo bigeze guhinduka imihondo

Ibindi bintu byabaye nk’ibidasanzwe mu ntambara ya Mbere y’Isi, ni ukuntu ngo abagore baje kwisanga barahindutse amasura mu mabara ajya gusa n’imihondo kubera kwirirwa bikunenga mu mirimo hafi ya yose irimo n’iy’imbaraga ubusanzwe yari imenyerewe gukorwa n’abagabo babaga barigiriye ku rugamba.

Aba bagore bamwe bagiye gukora mu nganda zakoraga ibisasu, bakoresha uburozi bw’umuhondo buzwi nka “Trinitrotoluene”. Kubera kubukoresha batikingiye, benshi ibice byabo byahindutse imihondo baza no kuhavana akazina ka “Canary girls”.

Mu gihe abagabo babaga batabarutse ngo babanzaga gushidikanya ku bagore b’Abongerezakazi bibaza icyabahinduye imihondo bikabayobera.

Gusa intambara zihosheje, aba bagore bo mu Bwongereza bambitswe amakamba yitiriwe ab’intwari basigaye ku rugo neza.

Muri iyi ntambara, abaganga baravumbuye, abanyamakuru baricwa

Ibindi bivugwa ko byatunguranye muri iyi ntambara, ni nk’aho abanyamakuru batangazaga amakuru ya nyayo ku rugamba, bahitaga bicwa ako kanya.

Muri Siyansi kandi, ubuhanga bwo kubaga no gukosora isura y’umuntu wakomeretse bwashyizwemo imbaraga mu Bwongereza, kubera abasirikare babaga bararashwe mu maso baterwaga ipfunwe n’amasura yabo yahindutse, maze Harold Gillies wari umuhanga mu kubaga ashyira imbaraga muri ubu buvuzi buzwi nka “Chirurgie Plastique” mu ndimi z’amahanga.
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Muri iyi ntambara, ni nabwo Kapiteni Oswald Robertson wo mu ngabo za Amerika yavumbuye uburyo bwo kubika amaraso yahabwaga inkomere, mu gihe ubusanzwe byasabaga ko uhabwa amaraso hahuzwa imitsi ye n’iy’uyatanga imbonankubone.

Utubaruwa dusaga Miliyari ebyiri twoherezwaga ku rugamba twateye ingabo umurava

Buri cyumweru ngo amabaruwa Miliyoni 12 yoherezwaga n’inshuti n’imiryango y’Abasirikare b’u Bwongereza ku rugamba, abasirikare nabo bakohereza andi, kugeza ubwo intambara yarangiye hoherejwe amabaruwa asaga Miliyari ebyiri.

Ubu butumwa kenshi bwabaga bwifuriza intsinzi izo ngabo, ngo bwanabaye intwaro ya karahabutaka yatumye izi ngabo zirwana zifite akanyabugabo, biri mu byanatumye u Bwongereza busoza Intambara y’Isi budatsinzwe.

Izo nyandiko ariko zaragenzurwaga cyane, ku buryo hari n’izaburizwagamo. U Bwongereza bwikangaga ko hari amakuru yanyuzwamo akaba yaca abasirikare intege, cyangwa umwanzi akaba yazifatira nzira agakuramo amabanga y’urugamba.

Ibindi bivugwa, ni ukuntu umunyabugeni w’Umwongereza witwaga Norman Wilkinson yazanye igitekerezo cyo guhindura amabara y’ubwato bw’intambara, aho kuba mu yijimye ya gisirikare, ahubwo akabutaka aremye nk’amakaro mu rwego rwo kujijisha umwanzi, ngo bujye bwitiranywa n’ubutwara ibicuruzwa.

Muri iyi ntambara kandi, u Bwongereza ngo bwakoresheje abana bagera ku 250,000 ndetse benshi muri bo babaga bafite imyaka 12 gusa.

Nubwo u Bwongereza bwajyanaga abana ku rugamba, igisirikare cyabwo cyazitiraga bikomeye Abajenerali bacyo kibabuza kwegera ahabera intambara. Icyarebwaga hano kwari ukuzigama ubuzima bw’Abasirikare bakuru, ngo kuko gutoza umusirikare akagera ku ipeti rya Jenerali byari bihenze cyane.

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Intambara ya Mbere y’Isi yose yabaye hagati y’umwaka wa 1914 na 1918

Daniel MUKESHIMANA@Umubavu.com


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Manishimwe fidele Kuya 6-04-2018

Muzaduhe nibyaranze intambara yo kubohora urwanda