Kuki nta mashuri asabwa ku muntu wifuza kuba umudepite?

Amategeko ateganya ko kugira ngo Umunyarwanda atorerwe kujya mu bagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko Umutwe w’Abadepite hari ibyo agomba kuba yujuje ariko muri byo nta cyiciro cy’amashuri kigaragaramo, aho bifunguriye buri wese kuba yakwiyamamaza.

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Itegeko rigenga amatora rivuga ko ushobora gutorerwa umwanya w’ubudepite ari Umunyarwanda wese wujuje nibura imyaka 21 y’amavuko, w’inyangamugayo, utarazitiwe n’imwe mu nzitizi ziteganywa mu ngingo ya 11 n’iya 49 rikagarukiraho gusa.

Gusa muri iryo tegeko nta mashuri asabwa kugira ngo umuntu yemererwe kuba umudepite.

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Mu kiganiro yagiranye na IGIHE, Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y’Amatora, Munyaneza Charles, yavuze ko impamvu mu itegeko hatarimo amashuri asabwa ariko byemewe ko buri Munyarwanda wese ashobora kwiyamamariza umwanya w’ubudepite, kandi ako usuzumye neza akazi bakora usanga atari ngombwa ko bisaba amashuri.

Yagize ati “Ntabwo guhagararira abaturage bisaba amashuri gusa, ubundi umudepite ni intumwa y’abaturage. Mu nshingano z’abadepite harimo gushyiraho amategeko, harimo gukurikirana ibikorwa bya guverinoma ariko no guhagararira abaturage.”

Yunzemo ati “Kujya kumenya ibibazo abaturage bafite cyangwa ibyifuzo byabo no kubigeza mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ntabwo bisaba amashuri, n’udafite amashuri uzi imibereho y’abaturage, uzi amateka y’igihugu muri rusange yaba umudepite, ntabwo umudepite bisaba amashuri gusa.“

Gusa yagaragaje ko n’ubwo mu itegeko bitarimo bitavuze ko Umutwe w’Abadepite utarimo abize kuko bose usanga bafite za diplômes.

Yanavuze ko igihe imitwe ya politiki igiye gukora amalisiti yayo cyangwa abakandida bigenga, n’ubwo nta mashuri asabwa ariko ishobora kubyitaho.

Yanashimangiye ko kumenya uko abaturage babayeho n’ibyo bifuza atari ibintu bisaba amashuri.

Mu nshingano z’abadepite harimo no gutora amategeko, yavuze ko Umutwe w’Abadepite ugira abakozi, bandika ayo mategeko, igikuru ari uko abadepite baba batanze ibitekerezo, bikaba ari byo bishingirwaho batora amategeko.

Nta ngaruka byatera?

Munyaneza ati “Oya nta ngaruka kuko n’ubu ntabwo biri mu itegeko kandi nta mudepite n’umwe uri mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko utarize. Nta ngaruka bifite, n’ubwo hajyamo utarize, ntabwo yaba ari we wenyine mudepite, Inteko igizwe n’abadepite 80, hagiyemo umwe udafite kaminuza cyangwa iki ntacyo byaba bitwaye. Ariko icyo nashakaga kuvuga ni uko biri mu itegeko kandi bimazemo igihe kandi nta mudepite urimo utarize, udafite diplôme.”

Perezida w’ Ishyaka ry’Iterambere n’Ubusabane (PPC), Dr Mukabaramba Alvera, yavuze ko iyo bakora urutonde rw’abakandida matora y’abadepite bareba abize ariko iyo babonye umuntu ufite ubunararibonye kandi yarize amashuri yisumbuye ngo ntibabura kumufata.

Ati “Iyo dukora lisiti dushyiramo abize ariko ntabwo tubiheraho, iyo tubona hari umuntu ushobora, yararangije nk’amashuri yisumbuye tubona asobanutse, ubona azakora akazi ke nta mpamvu utamushyiramo.”

Muri iki gihe akazi abadepite bakora usanga gakomeye ku buryo hari igihe itegeko ryagena ko hari amashuri byasaba kugira ngo umuntu abashe kwiyamamaza. Gusa yavuze ko n’ubwo ritabiteganya bitazaba byoroshye mu gihe kizaza kubona Umunyarwanda utarize.

Yagize ati “Erega n’ubundi ntabwo tuzababona batize, hari uburezi kuri bose, umuntu uzaba yarize make ni amashuri yisumbuye ariko hazaba hari benshi bazaba baragiye muri kaminuza. Nta mpungenge, nta muntu bazabura uhagararira abandi. Ubanza n’ikibazo cyari gihari, hari abo byahagarikaga kandi bashobora guhagararira baturage mu Nteko, ayo mashuri akababera inzitizi. Ariko ubanza bitaba inzitizi muri iki gihe.”

Depite Mporanyi asanga bitoroshye ko umuntu yaba umudepite adafite amashuri

Depite Mporanyi Théobald, yabwiye IGIHE ko umudepite aba ahagarariye rubanda muri rusange, aho mu bihugu byateye imbere hari aho usanga itsinda ry’abantu bashobora kuba bahagararirwa mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko, kandi ababahagarariye ugasanga badafite amashuri.

Yagize ati “Umudepite ni umuntu uhagarariye abandi, buriya ndaguha urugero rwo mu bihugu byateye imbere bagira nk’abahinzi, ushobora kugenda ukiyamamaza uri umuhinzi, mufite amakoperative, bakavuga ngo kugira ngo inyungu z’abahinzi zizajye zitambuka, tukajyanayo umuntu, wa muntu wacu nibaterana, agaragaze ingorane abahinzi bahura na zo. Abadepite twabafata kwa kundi mu miryango bafata umuntu uzaya gusabira abandi, biriya ntibigombere PhD, ni umuntu usobanutse, ufite ibitekerezo, abandi bibonamo, wa mujyanama, ushobora kujyana ibitekerezo bw’abandi akamenya kubisobanura.”

Gusa yavuze ko muri iki gihe ikoranabuhanga rikoreshwa ahantu hatandukanye, bigasaba umuntu kugira ubumenyi bwatuma igihe atorewe ubudepite yabasha gukora neza.

Mu bihugu byateye imbere, ngo hari aho usanga hari abadepite batize ariko bazi gusoma no kwandika. Gusa aho ngo abo badepite baba bafite ibiro byabo, ku buryo baba bafite abakozi, harimo abanditsi ndetse n’abanyamategeko babafasha mu kazi ka buri munsi.

Yasobanuye ko mu Rwanda byagorana kuba umudepite yakora nta bumenyi bw’ibanze byaba nibura mu rurimi rumwe rw’amahanga rwemewe mu butegetsi ndetse no gukoresha ikoranabuhanga, na cyane ko hataboneka ibiro n’abakozi byagenerwa buri mudepite.

Ati “Ubona ukuntu tubaza, uko dutora n’ibyuma dukoresha, ubwo urumva ko bigomba gusaba ubumenyi ariko na none ngarutse kuri cya kindi nakubwiraga mu bihugu byateye imbere bikize, iyo uri umudepite uba ufite ibiro, we icyo aba ashinzwe, nshobora kuba ntarize cyane nzi gusoma no kwandika ariko mfite ba bakozi, ibintu byose nkasanga babinteguriye. Byaba bigoye uramutse ugiyemo utarize muri iki gihe byakugora kuko urabona aho isi igeze, irakoreshwa mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga.”

Depite Mporanyi yavuze ko amashuri afasha umudepite gukora akazi neza ariko atari yo amwinjiza mu nteko; ashimangira kandi ko guhitamo umuntu wize cyangwa utarize bituruka ku bushake bw’abaturage batora, aho mu gihe hari abakandida batandukanye kandi bose bujuje ibisabwa, ufite amashuri make cyangwa utarize biba bigoye ko yatorwa.

Ibyo wamenya ku Mutwe w’Abadepite mu Rwanda?

Umutwe w’Abadepite ugizwe n’Abadepite mirongo inani, baturuka kandi batorerwa mu byiciro bitandukanye.

Hari 53 batorerwa kuri lisiti y’amazina ndakuka y’abakandida batangwa n’imitwe ya politiki cyangwa biyamamaza ku giti cyabo. Batorwa mu matora rusange ataziguye ku buryo busaranganya imyanya.

Hari 24 b’abagore batorwa n’inzego zihariye hakurikijwe inzego z’imitegekere y’Igihugu; Babiri batorwa n’Inama y’Igihugu y’Urubyiruko; ndetse n’umudepite umwe utorwa n’Inama y’Igihugu y’abantu bafite ubumuga.

Abadepite batorerwa manda y’imyaka itanu, bashobora kongera gutorerwa izindi manda, bishatse kuvuga ko umudepite abaturage bashobora kumugirira icyizere imyaka myinshi.

Kugeza ubu abadepite bari mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko bari kugana ku musozo wa manda y’abo, aho biteganyijwe ko mu ntangiriro za Nzeri hazatorwa abandi bazamara manda y’imyaka itanu.

Ingingo ya 11 y’ Itegeko rigenga amatora ivuga ko utemerewe kwiyandikisha ku ilisiti y’itora ari uwambuwe n’Inkiko zibifitiye ububasha uburenganzira bwo gutora akaba atarahanagurwaho ubwo busembwa cyangwa ngo ahabwe imbabazi zemewe n’amategeko.

Undi ni uwakatiwe burundu kubera icyaha cy’ubwicanyi n’ubuhotozi; uwakatiwe burundu kubera icyaha cya jenoside cyangwa ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu mu rwego rwa mbere n’urwa kabiri nk’uko biteganywa mu ngingo ya 76 y’itegeko ngenga n° 16/2004 ryo ku wa 16/6/2004 rigena imiterere, ububasha n’imikorere by’Inkiko Gacaca zishinzwe gukurikirana no gucira imanza abakoze ibyaha bya jenoside n’ibindi byibasiye inyokomuntu byakozwe hagati y’itariki ya mbere Ukwakira 1990 n’iya 31 Ukuboza 1994.

Uwireze akiyemerera icyaha cya jenoside cyangwa ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu bimushyira mu rwego rwa mbere; uwahamwe n’icyaha cyo gusambanya abana; uwahamwe n’icyaha cyo gusambanya ku gahato; umuntu ufunze ndetse n’impunzi.

Na ho ingingo ya 49 ivuga ko umuntu wamburwa mu buryo budahoraho uburenganzira bwo gutora no gutorwa ari ufunzwe by’agateganyo hubahirizwa amategeko y’imiburanishirize y’imanza nshinjabyaha; ufunzwe mu rwego rw’irangizagihano; umuntu ufite uburwayi bwo mu mutwe cyangwa ushobora guhungabanya umudendezo w’abaturage.


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